Bipolar Disorder, Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention

Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder is a type of psychological illness , is characterized by extreme mood changes , namely in the form of depression and mania . Decision- term bipolar mood disorder refers to a sufferer who can change abruptly between two poles ( bipolar ) is the opposite of happiness ( mania ) and sadness ( depression ) to the extreme .

Everyone in general has experienced a good mood ( high mood ) and bad mood ( low mood ) . However , a person suffering from bipolar disorder have extreme mood swings that feeling easy pattern changed drastically . One time , a person with bipolar disorder may feel very enthusiastic and excited ( mania ) . However , when it turns bad mood , he can be very depressed , pessimistic , hopeless , even to have a desire to commit suicide ( depression ) . In the past , the disease is called " manic - depressive " . Increased mood clinically referred to as mania or , if mild , hypomania .

Individuals who experience episodes of mania also often experience depressive episodes , or symptoms , or mixed episodes in which features of both mania and depression are present at the same time . These episodes are usually separated by periods of " normal " mood ( mood ) , but , in some depression , and mania individuals may change very quickly , which is known as "rapid - cycle " . Extreme manic episodes can sometimes lead to psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations . Manic episodes usually begin suddenly and lasts between two weeks to five months . While depression tends to last longer . Episode hipomanik have degrees milder than the bead . The disorder has been subdivided into bipolar I , bipolar II , cyclothymia , and other types , based on the nature and severity of episodes of mood experiences ; the range is often described as the bipolar spectrum .

It could be said that the high incidence of bipolar disorder is not between 0,3-1,5 percent . But that number does not include the misdiagnosis ( commonly diagnosed as schizophrenia ) . Bipolar mental disorder is now affecting an estimated 10 to 12 percent of teens overseas . In some cities in Indonesia also began to be reported patients aged adolescents . The risk of death continues to haunt people with bipolar disorder and it is more because they take shortcuts .

The first episode can arise from childhood to old age . Most cases occur in young adults aged 20-30 years . The earlier someone suffering from bipolar disorder , the risk of disease will be more severe , prolonged , and often relapse . While children develop the potential of this disorder into a more severe form and often in conjunction with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder . People who are at risk of developing bipolar disorder are those who have family members suffering from bipolar disorder .

Signs and symptoms of Bipolar Disorder

Bipolar disorder can look very different on different people . Symptoms vary in their pattern , severity , and frequency . Some people are more prone to either mania or depression , while others alternate equally between the two types of episodes . Some mood disorders frequently , while others experience only a little over a lifetime . There are four types of mood episodes in bipolar disorder : mania , hypomania , depression , and mixed episodes . Each type of bipolar disorder mood episode has a unique phenomenon .

a. Signs and Symptoms of Mania

The symptoms of mania phase of bipolar disorder are as follows :

  1. excessive excited
  2. Easily offended so easily upset
  3. Feeling himself very important
  4. Feeling rich or have more ability than others
  5. Full of ideas and a new spirit
  6. Quickly move from one idea to another idea
  7. Such as hearing voices that other people can not hear
  8. Increased sexual appetite
  9. Develop a plan that does not make sense
  10. Very active and moving very fast
  11. Speaking very quickly that it is difficult to understand what is being said
  12. waste of money
  13. Making decisions and suddenly strange , but is likely to endanger
  14. Feeling very familiar with others
  15. Easy to throw criticism of others
  16. Difficult restraint in everyday behavior
  17. wakeful
  18. Feeling very excited , as if 1 day 24 hours is not enough

b. Signs and Symptoms of hypomania

Hypomania is less severe form of mania . People in a hypomanic state of feeling happy , energetic , and productive , but they were able to continue their daily lives and they never lose touch with reality . For others , it may seem as if people with hypomania are just in the mood amazingly good . However , hypomania can result in bad decisions that harm relationships , careers , and reputations . Additionally , hypomania often can " grade " for the full mania and sometimes can be followed by a major depressive episode .

Stage similar to mania hypomania . The difference is the people who are at this stage feel more calm as if he was back to normal and did not experience hallucinations and delusions . Hypomania is difficult to diagnose because it looks like ordinary happiness , but it carries the same risk with mania . The symptoms of bipolar disorder hypomania stage are as follows :
1 . Excited and full of energy , creativity arises.
2 . Be optimistic , always seemed happy , more active , and quick to anger.
3 . Decreased need for sleep .

c . Signs and Symptoms of Bipolar Depression

The symptoms of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder are as follows :

  1. Mood of gloom and sadness prolonged
  2. Often crying or wanting to cry for no apparent reason
  3. Loss of interest in doing something
  4. Not being able to feel the excitement
  5. Easily tired , lackluster , lethargic
  6. Difficulty concentrating
  7. Feeling useless and hopeless
  8. Feeling guilty and innocent
  9. Low self-esteem and lack of confidence
  10. Assumed future bleak and pessimistic
  11. Thoughts of suicide
  12. Loss of appetite or overeating
  13. Weight loss or weight gain
  14. Difficulty falling asleep, waking early , or excessive sleeping
  15. Nausea , dry mouth , hard bowel movement, and sometimes diarrhea
  16. Loss of sexual desire
  17. Avoid communication with others

Almost all patients with bipolar disorder have thought about suicide and 30 % of them are trying to realize these intentions in various ways .

d . Signs and Symptoms of Mixed Episode

An episode of bipolar disorder features a mix of both symptoms of mania or hypomania and depression . Common signs of a mixed episode include depression combined with agitation , irritability , anxiety , insomnia , distractibility , and racing thoughts (flight of ideas ) . The combination of high and low energy make mood ( mood ) patients with very high risk for suicide .

In the context of bipolar disorder, mixed episode (mixed state) is a condition in which stages of mania and depression occur together. At a certain moment, the patient might feel excessive energy, can not sleep, arise the ideas milling around in the head, aggressive, and panic (mania). However, several hours later, it was transformed into the opposite state. Patients feel tired, hopeless, and so negative about the surrounding environment. It happened alternately and repeatedly in a relatively quick time. Alcohol, drugs, and antidepressant drugs are often consumed by people while on this episode.

Mixed state can be the most dangerous episodes of bipolar disorder sufferers . In this episode , most people have a desire to commit suicide because of tiredness , despair , delusion and hallucination . The symptoms are shown if the patient will commit suicide are as follows .
1 . Always talking about death and desire for death to those around him .
2 . Having a personal view of death .
3 . Consuming excessive drugs and alcohol .
4 . Sometimes forget the debt or bills like ; electricity bills , telephone . 

Patients who experience these symptoms or those who know should immediately call your doctor or mental health professional , do not leave the patient alone , and keep objects or equipment which are at risk of harm to patients or the people around him .

Causes of Bipolar Disorder

a. Genetic

Congenital factor gene is a common cause of bipolar disorder . A person born of parents one of whom is a person with bipolar disorder have the same risk of developing the disease by 15 % -30 % and if both parents suffer from bipolar disorder , then 50 % -75 % . children at risk of developing bipolar disorder . Identical twin of a person with bipolar disorder had the highest risk of the possibility of developing the disease than non- identical twins . Research on the influence of genetic factors in bipolar disorder ever undertaken by involving families and twins . The results showed that about 10-15 % of the families of patients who have bipolar disorder have experienced an episode of mood disorder .

b . Physiological

  • System Neurochemistry and Mood Disorders

One of the main factors causing the person suffering from bipolar disorder is a major disruption of the balance of chemicals in the brain . As deliver excitatory functioning organ , the brain requires a neurotransmitter ( nerve messenger or signaling from the brain to other body parts ) in carrying out their duties . Norepinephrine , dopamine , and serotonin are several types of neurotransmitters that are important in the delivery of nerve impulses . In patients with bipolar disorder , chemical liquids are located in a state that is not balanced . For example , when a person with a bipolar disorder with high levels of dopamine in the brain will feel extremely excited , aggressive , and confident . This condition is called mania phase . In contrast to the depressive phase .

This phase occurs when the levels of key brain chemicals that decrease below normal , so people do not feel excited , pessimistic , and even suicidal great .

A person suffering from bipolar disorder indicates a disturbance in the motivational system called behavioral activation system ( BAS ) . BAS facilitate the human ability to obtain a reward ( achievement of objectives ) of the environment . It is associated with positive emotional states , such as extrovert personality characteristics ( open-ended ) , increased energy , and decreased need for sleep .

Biologically , BAS believed to be associated with neural pathways in the brain that involve dopamine and behavior to obtain rewards . Life events that involve reward or desire to achieve a predictable increase episodes of mania , but has nothing to do with episodes of depression . While other positive events not associated with changes in an episode of mania .

  • Neuroendocrine systems 

Limbic areas of the brain associated with emotion and affect the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus controls the endocrine function and hormone levels produced. Hormones produced by the hypothalamus gland also affects pituarity. These glands are associated with depressive disorders such as sleep disorders and appetite stimulation. Various findings support this, that depressed people have high levels of cortisol (adrenocortical hormone) is high. It is caused by excess production of hormone release by the hypothalamus rotropin. Excess production of cortisol in people with depression also cause more adrenal glands. The amount of cortisol is also associated with damage to the hipoccampus and research has also proven that in depressed people showed abnormal hipoccampal. Cushing's Syndrome Research on also associated with high levels of cortisol in depressive disorders.

c . Environment

Bipolar Disorder does not have a single cause . It seems that certain people are genetically predisposed to bipolar disorder . However, not all people with inherited susceptibility disease progresses , suggesting that the gene is not the only cause . Several brain imaging studies show physical changes in the brains of people with bipolar disorder . In other studies mentioned , points neurotransmitter imbalance , abnormal thyroid function , circadian rhythm disorders , and high levels of the stress hormone cortisol . External environmental and psychological factors are also believed to be involved in the development of bipolar disorder . External factors are called triggers . Triggers can start a new episode of mania or depression , or make existing symptoms worse . However , many episodes of bipolar disorder occurs without any obvious trigger .

Patients with this disease are likely to experience a trigger factor disease involving interpersonal relationships , or goal attainment events ( reward ) in life . Examples of relationships between other individuals in love , broken love , and death of a friend. While the events of the achievement of objectives , among others, failure to graduate school and was fired from a job . In addition , a person with bipolar disorder whose symptoms begin to appear when adolescence is likely to have a history of childhood experience a lot less enjoyable as anxiety or depression . In addition to the above causes , alcohol , drugs , and other diseases suffered also can trigger bipolar disorder .

On the other hand , the state of the surrounding environment that can better support people with this disorder so they can lead normal lives . The following are the environmental factors that may trigger the occurrence of BD , among others :

  1. Stress - Stress life events can trigger bipolar disorder in a person with a genetic susceptibility . These events tend to involve drastic changes or sudden - good or bad - would like to get married , go to college , losing a loved one , being fired .
  2. Substance Abuse - While substance abuse does not cause bipolar disorder , it can bring on an episode and worsen the course of the disease . Drugs such as cocaine , ecstasy , and amphetamines can trigger mania , while alcohol and tranquilizers can trigger depression .
  3. Medication - certain drugs , especially antidepressant drugs , can trigger mania . Other drugs that can cause mania include cold medicines over-the- counter appetite suppressants , caffeine , corticosteroids , and thyroid medication .
  4. Seasonal Changes - Episodes of mania and depression often follow a seasonal pattern . Manic episodes are more common during the summer , and depressive episodes more common during the winter , autumn and spring ( for countries with 4 seasons ) .
  5. Sleep Deprivation - Loss of sleep - even as little as skipping a few hours of rest - can trigger an episode of mania .

Self -help for Bipolar Disorder

While dealing with bipolar disorder is not always easy , does not have to run your life . But to successfully manage bipolar disorder , you have to make smart choices . your lifestyle and daily habits have a significant impact on your mood . Read on for ways to help yourself :
  1. Get education about how to overcome the interference . Learn as much as you can about bipolar . The more you know , the better you will be helping your own recovery .
  2. Keep stress . Avoid high stress situations by maintaining a balance between work and healthy living , and try relaxation techniques such as meditation , yoga , or deep breathing .
  3. Seeking support . It's important to have people you can turn to for help and encouragement . Try joining a support group or talking with trusted friends.
  4. Make healthy choices . Healthy sleeping , eating , and exercise habits can help stabilize your mood . Maintain a regular sleep schedule is very important .
  5. Monitor your mood . Keep track of your symptoms and watch for signs that your mood swings out of control so you can stop the problem before it starts .